FINAL REPORT - Continued

Statistical Reporting

A Documentation Clerk was assigned to support the Forest Service law enforcement operations. All Violation Notices and Incident Reports were entered into the Law Enforcement Management Activity Reporting System (LEMARS) by the Documentation Clerk.

Interagency statistical reporting support was provided by the Arizona Department of Public Safety (DPS) Intelligence Unit. Participating agencies provided a daily statistical report to DPS who compiled the information on a daily Public Safety Activity Report. The incident reporting period was June 13 through July 12,1998.

Forest Service Statistical Information

Arrests: 12*
Drug Incidents: 143
Weapons Incidents: 13**
Citations: 238
Field Interviews: n/a
Accidents: 1
Other Responses: 465
Warnings: 612
Medical Emergencies: 0

* Includes 10 referrals to State/County ** Includes 8 referrals to State/County


Cumulative - Violation Types, Rainbow Family Incident

Chart represents Forest Service Statistics


Cooperating Agency Statistical Information 9

Arrests: 130
Drug Incidents: 83
Weapons Incidents: 21
Citations: 356
Field Interviews: 1~128
Accidents: 47
Other Responses: 6.362
Warnings: 1~174
Medical Emergencies: 62

Significant Incidents Occurring at Rainbow Family Gathering on NFS Lands

6/15 - Forest Service LEOs responded to a motor vehicle accident. Four individuals were injured. Subsequent to the investigation, one arrest was made for possession of psilocybin mushrooms and two juveniles were identified as runaways.

6/16 - One member of the Rainbow Family Shanti Sena was arrested for felony drug distribution by Forest Service LEOs. The case was referred to the Apache County Sheriff's Office.

6/17 - Forest Service LEOs assisted the Apache County Sheriff's Office in the arrest of a subject for felony property damage.

6/18 - Forest Service LEOs located, detained, and turned over to Apache County Officials two, out of state juvenile runaways.

6/18 - A wildfire caused by an abandoned campfire was reported near the gathering site. The fire was contained to approximately 1/4 acre in size.

6/19 - Two Rainbow Family members were cited by Forest Service LEOs for failure to obtain the required special use permit under the noncommercial group use regulations. The citations were the result of an investigation conducted by a Forest Service Special Agent assigned to the incident.

6/19 - Forest Service LEOs arrested a subject on an out of state warrant. The subject was turned over to Apache County.

6/19 - A small wildfire resulted as the result of an unattended campfire at the gathering site. A tent and some personal belongings were damaged.

6/22 - An unattended campfire near the gathering area resulted in a 1/2 acre wildland fire.

6/25 - Forest Service LEOs detained a subject for a felony warrant. The situation escalated when several Rainbow Family members gathered around the LEOs. The crowd dispersed with the help of the horse and canine units. The State refused to extradite due to the distance and cost and the subject was released.

9 Cooperating agency statistics include Apache County Sheriff s Office, Arizona Department of Public Safety, Arizona Department of Game and Fish, Eagar Police Department, Navajo County Sheriff s Office, Pinetop/Lakeside Police Department, Show Low Police Department, Snowflake/Taylor Police Department, Springerville Police Department.


6/27 - Forest Service LEOs stopped the spread of a fire in Bus Village.

6/27 - Forest Service LEOs arrested a subject on an outstanding Arizona warrant. The subject was turned over to Apache County.

6/27 - Forest Service LEOs and Apache County Sheriff's Deputies responded to a report of shots being fired along FS Road 117A. Officers encountered five subjects in the area. The investigations resulted in the arrest of three subjects for possession of marijuana, possession of paraphernalia, and possession of Schedule I narcotics (cocaine). Officers seized three handguns, three rifles (including an AR-I 5), and two shotguns from the subjects arrested.

6/27 - Two juvenile runaways from Tennessee were taken into custody by Forest Service LEOs. They were turned over to Apache County juvenile authorities.

6/27 - Apache County Sheriff's Office investigated a report of a subject brandishing a gun near "Welcome Home"

6/28 - Two small fires were discovered within the gathering area. A Forest Service engine was dispatched to one, the Rainbow Family extinguished the other.

6/29 - Arizona Game and Fish Officers and Forest Service LEOs arrested a subject for DUI. The subject was arrested as he was leaving the gathering site and was found to be carrying a large amount of cash.

6/29 - One apparent alcohol related death of a Rainbow Family member was reported to the Apache County Sheriff's Of lice. The victim was transported by private vehicle to a local hospital where he died of internal bleeding.

6/30 - Forest Service LEOs attempted to arrest a subject for interference. The arresting officers were on horseback and became surrounded by a large group of people. In the process of removing the prisoner and the horses from the scene, the prisoner escaped. Several law enforcement units from various agencies responded to the incident and the subject was later arrested and charged with interference, resisting arrest, and inciting a riot.

7/1 - A Forest Service LEO was assaulted by two subjects during a vehicle stop near the gathering area. Forest Service LEOs were surrounded by a crowd of people during the incident. The officer was struck in the chest with a flashlight by one subject and pushed by another. One subject was arrested, the other is at large. The subject arrested had threatened the District Ranger earlier in the week.

7/1 - One person was transported to a local hospital by a private vehicle for severe burns.

7/1 - Forest Service LEOs arrested a subject on an outstanding warrant. The subject was turned over to Apache County.

7/1 - Apache County Sheriff's Of lice investigated reports of shots being fired at the intersection of Highway 60 and FS Road 1 17.

7/2 - Forest Service LEOs and the Arizona Department of Game and Fish Officers arrested a subject on a felony kidnaping warrant from California. There were four small children with the subject; the two smallest children were naked and sitting in feces. The children were released to Child Protective Services. The local animal control officer was bitten by two dogs that were in the vehicle.


7/4 - Forest Service LEOs and Apache County Deputies arrested an individual on an outstanding misdemeanor warrant.

7/4 - Apache County Deputies arrested an individual on an outstanding homicide warrant from Florida.

7/4 - Forest Service LEOs detained a subject walking into the gathering with a concealed, loaded 9mm handgun. The subject was cited by officers from the Arizona Game and Fish Department.

7/4 - Forest Service LEOs assisted the Rainbow Family with a victim suffering from convulsions. The victim was transported by private vehicle to the hospital.

7/5 - Reports from the gathering indicated there were possibly eight drug overdoes over the past 24 hours. One victim was transported to the hospital by ambulance. Several others were taken to the hospital by private vehicle.

7/5 - A subject reported that his vehicle was damaged by Rainbows with clubs in Bus Village. The victim decided not to press charges

7/9 - Forest Service LEOs impounded a horse and donkey at the gathering site. The Arizona State Livestock Inspector took possession of animals on 7/10. The owner of the animals was transported by ambulance to the hospital for an apparent drug overdose.

Developing Issues/Concerns

A significant amount of controlled substance use continues to occur at the Rainbow Family Gatherings on National Forest System lands. Forest Service law enforcement personnel documented a total of 143 drug related incidents during the reporting period. In addition, the widespread and open use of marijuana throughout the gathering was observed by Forest Service and other agency officials. The Apache County Sheriff s Of rice reported a total of 17 drug related incidents.

Reports continue to surface regarding weapons and people willing to use them, particularly against law enforcement officers. A total of 13 incidents involving weapons were reported. This presents a serious safety concern to law enforcement personnel assigned to the incident. As a result of these reports, law enforcement patrol was curtailed in the Bus Village and Alcohol (A-Camp) area during night time hours and resource monitoring was temporarily discontinued during a portion of the gathering period due to safety considerations for agency personnel.

Some Rainbow Family members continue to exhibit aggressive behavior towards law enforcement officials. One Forest Service LEO was assaulted and other cases of interference were reported. Indications are that some of the more "traditional" Rainbow Family members were unhappy with this behavior and the criminal element that attended this years gathering. Many left the gathering early for this reason. It is estimated that less than 50 percent of the people attending the gathering this year participated in the July 4th Prayer for World Peace Ceremony at the Main Circle Area.


The potential for wildland fire was high until rainfall occurred over the area on July 2. Red flag conditions and fire restrictions were in place on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests. Forest Service law enforcement personnel documented 72 fire related incidents which included campfires, smoking, and fireworks related violations. Five human caused wildland fires occurred at or adjacent to the gathering site.

Natural resources and government property were impacted significantly by the Rainbow Family Gathering. Forest Service law enforcement personnel reported 58 related violations. These included, timber and other forest products, property, occupancy and use, littering, and sanitation related violations.

The Rainbow Family continues to refuse to comply with the large non-commercial group use regulations. They state it is their Constitutional and First Amendment right to gather on National Forest System lands. Two Rainbow Family members were cited for failure to obtain the required special use permit under the large non-commercial group use regulations. The case is pending.

Local communities continue to be significantly impacted by the Rainbow Family Gatherings. A total of 130 arrests were made, 83 drug incidents reported, 21 incidents involving weapons reported, 356 citations issued, 47 accidents, 6,362 other responses and 1,174 warnings. Many of these incidents included theft, panhandling, disturbances and public nudity. Cooperating agencies reported 62 medical emergencies.

Traffic safety, parking, and blocking of Forest Service roads was a significant problem. Forest Service law enforcement personnel documented in excess of 500 related violations. This included careless and reckless vehicle operation, vehicle equipment violations, operating motor vehicles in violation of state law, use of vehicles in closure areas, blocking Forest Service roads, and improper parking. In excess of 5,000 vehicles were estimated at this year's gathering.

Juvenile runaways attending Rainbow Family Gatherings continues to be a problem. The Apache County Juvenile Probation Department reported 10 incidents involving juvenile runaways.

Reports were received that various types of groups attended this year's gathering. These included the Wyoming Patriots and the Aryan Brotherhood. Reports indicated the Wyoming Patriots would defend the Rainbows from any actions by the government.



Rainbow Family Incident

Graph represents Forest Service Statistics




This year's incident is the first funded in advance at the national level. Law Enforcement and Investigations provided $250,000 for officer overtime and miscellaneous support expenses. National Forest Systems provided $250,000 for salaries, overtime, and misc. support expenses. This Finding is intended to mitigate impacts on the Region and Forest where the incident occurred. The funding was not necessarily intended to cover the entire management expense. It will cover the majority of expenses, and the WO, RO and Forest should be able to cover the rest.

The Team's strategy was minimizing costs by utilizing existing systems such as computers and equipment such as fax machines, telephones and copiers; enrolling volunteers; negotiating group rates for lodging; traveling together; operating from public facilities; utilizing unified command; and routinely re-evaluating the continued need for resources. The team's goal was to control costs and keep them as close as possible to the national Finding level to minimize impacts on the Region and Forest.


The total costs of the incident will be nearly impossible to capture because so many items were borrowed or used at no cost, and many salary costs are not directly charged to the incident.

There are several management code issues. Having separate codes for LE&I and for NFS with over-rides sometimes prohibits splitting costs. It would be better to have one "project" code similar to project fires. There will be charges against the fund early in the year when it is not possible to accurately predict which National Forest will be impacted. Changing management codes several times is confusing and incurs accounting costs. Having management codes with overrides is very costly from an accounting perspective, especially when having to reconcile split pay period salaries.

The treatment of AUO for Law Enforcement Officers and of maximum pay limitations for National

Forest System employees needs to be addressed at the national level. The team is committed to the concept that no one should have to lose pay by accepting this assignment.

Financial Summary

Cost Analysis

                              LE&I                NFS

Preliminary Estimates         $250,000            $349,000
To Date 6/15                  N/A                   61,000
To Date 6/19                   52,000              101,000
To Date 6/26                  137,000              160,000
To Date 7/3                   185,000              212,000
To Date 7/10                  237,000              258,000
Estimate 7/17                 250,000              285,000

Projected Rehabilitation Costs (Worst Case)         30,000**
Total Costs                  $250,000             $315,000***

**The Forest expects the Rainbow Family to complete rehabilitation of the impacted areas. However, there will be costs associated with rehabilitation which are unlikely to be covered by the Family. Additionally, once the Family has departed, any failures are likely to be funded by the Forest.

***See Appendix 18 for most current cost estimates.



Incident Personnel

In addition to the national team, there were several overhead positions assigned to the incident. Some were filled by resource orders from across the National Forest System, some were filled by local Forest and District personnel, and others were filled by retired Forest Service employees and their spouses. A dispatcher position was filled by the Bureau of Land Management. Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and Springerville Ranger District personnel filled all resource specialist positions.

On June 13th, eight Forest Service Law Enforcement Officers, and one Division Supervisor were as-signed to the incident. These officers were working a day shift in two-person teams from 0800 to 2130.

At the peak of the incident, 24 Law Enforcement Officers were assigned. Twenty-four hour shifts started on June 26 and lasted through July 7. Seven two-person patrol units were working the day shift, from 0700 to 2030. The day shift patrol units included two canine units and two horse units. Five two--person units were working the night shift, from 1830 to 0800. After returning to day shift only, the event was patrolled by four two-person units.

At maximum staffing, there were 24 Law Enforcement Officers, two Division Supervisors, one Special Agent /Investigator, and 28 overhead (including four volunteers) assigned to the incident. Also, during periods of high fire danger, there was a Type III and a Type VI Engine staged near the Gathering site.

Planning Section Staffing

The Planning Section is responsible for the tracking of incident resources, development of the daily Incident Action Plans, facilitation of briefings and meetings, mapping of the incident to meet a variety of needs, completion of the Daily Situation Report, monitoring and attempted mitigation of environmental effects, and compilation of all incident documentation. In addition to the Planning Section Chief, the unit was staffed by a Documentation Unit Leader, a part-time Resource Unit Leader, a Situation Unit Leader, and several Resource Specialists.

The Documentation Unit Leader devoted only a portion of her time to the Planning Section. Most of her focus was as Documentation Unit Leader for the Operations Section, where she reviewed, summarized, and filed all law enforcement documentation. The Situation Unit Leader position was filled by an Apache-Sitgreaves hydrologist, who produced a variety of maps of the Gathering site and the surrounding area. This individual also coordinated the water sampling activities for water quality monitoring. The Resource Unit Leader position was a shared position with the Finance Section. Her primary responsibility was Time Unit Leader, but she also filled in when needed to complete the Incident Action Plan.

Several Resource Specialists were assigned to the incident. Their activities were supervised by a Springerville District employee who was assigned as the lead Resource Specialist. The individuals assigned had expertise in hydrology, soils, fire prevention and suppression, range, timber and recreation.


Incident Action Plans

The Planning Section developed daily Incident Action Plans (IAPs) starting on June 16 and ending on July 12. National Incident Command System Forms were edited to accommodate the differences between wildfire IAPs and large group event IAPs. In addition to daily assignments for Forest Service law enforcement, resources and public affairs personnel, the shift plans included daily schedules for all co-operating law enforcement agencies. Schedules were included for the Apache and Navajo County Sheriff's Offices, the Eagar and Springerville Police Departments, the Arizona Department of Public Safety, the Arizona Department of Game and Fish, and the White Mountain Apache Tribe Department of Public Safety. Two sets of plans were prepared. The only difference between the two plans was the inclusion of the schedules for the cooperating law enforcement agencies in the law enforcement IAP.

Environmental Effects

Once it was determined that the area surrounding Carnero Lake was the likely site for the 1998 Rainbow Gathering, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and Springerville Ranger District employees began working on a strategy to minimize potential environmental effects. This strategy included 1) identification of resource issues/concerns in the surrounding area, 2) pre-incident surveys to assess the current condition of the site, 3) notification of gathering participants of resource concerns and expected mitigations, 4) continual monitoring of environmental effects during the event, 5) development of a rehabilitation plan to return the site to near pre-gathering conditions, and 6) post-incident monitoring.

Resource Issues/Concerns

The following resource issues/concerns were identified:

Water Quality: '['here are several springs m the area, as well as Carnero Creek and Lake. Although on Federally managed lands, the water rights to most of these springs belong to private individuals. he impact of up to 25,000 people and their pets on these water sources could be significant. Slit trenches for the disposal of human waste have been used at past gatherings.

Riparian Protection: The potential exists for stream crossings, water system development and trampling of riparian vegetation to have negative effects on riparian areas.

Permitted Cattle Grazing: There are four separate grazing permittees on the area surrounding Carnero Lake. At the time of the gathering, there were approximately 1000 head of cattle grazing in the immediate area. The potential existed for conflicts between cattle, permittees, and gathering participants. In addition, several drift fences in the area could be damaged by gathering participants.

Loss of Forage: There were concerns for forage reduction, compaction and soil erosion due to trampling in the meadows.

Prevention of Wildfires: At the time the gathering was starting, the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests was experiencing extreme fire danger due to high temperatures and low humidities. A large area of very high fuel loading was adjacent to the main gathering site. The risk of a wildfire originating at the gathering site was very high.

Damage to Timber Stands: Although there was an ample supply of wood on the ground for fire-wood, the potential for cutting of standing green trees for fuel and building material existed.


Threatened and Endangered Species: The area lies near a Mexican spotted owl protected activity center. The owls could be potentially affected by noise disturbance. There is a Wildlife Closure Area adjacent to the site. Illegal vehicle traffic in the area could increase.

Litter: from up to 25,000 people could be a huge problem if not removed by the Family.

Roads: Thousands of vehicles were expected to access the gathering site. Forest roads in the area are unsurfaced and could suffer significant damage from the large increase in traffic.

Electronics Site at Greens Peak: The was a potential for damage to the electronic equipment at Greens Peak. The road to the lookout was closed except for permittees and administrative use.

Interaction With Other Forest Visitors: The Carnero Lake area is a popular destination for many forest visitors during the fourth of July weekend. These visitors could be displaced and conflicts may occur. In addition, impacts to surrounding facilities such as campgrounds may increase.

Pre-incident Surveys

The following pre-incident surveys were conducted:

The Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest, in conjunction with Northern Arizona University, collected water samples from within and around the gathering site. The sampling network was designed to identify the effects of the gathering on bacteriological water quality and will isolate the source of pollution through DNA tests on the bacteria.

Vegetation transects were completed in all meadows likely to be impacted by gathering participants to quantify the effects of the event on forage production and ecological changes in the vegetation.

A Properly Functioning Condition survey was completed along Carnero Creek to define the effect to riparian quality.

Photo points were established to document pre-incident conditions at several locations within the site, and from Greens Peak.

Monitoring During the Incident

As participants began arriving, resource personnel and Law Enforcement Officers made contact with the perceived leaders of the Family to communicate resource concerns and expected mitigation measures. These contacts continued throughout the gathering and were generally received very well by Family members. Except for short periods when the safety of resource personnel was a concern, the site was visited daily by resource specialists to monitor the environmental effects of the gathering. Photos were taken regularly to document the increasing effects, and also to document actions that Family members had implemented to reduce those effects. Students from Northern Arizona University returned to the site on July 7 to take the second set of water samples from the same locations as the first samples.


Site Rehabilitation

Resource specialists from the Springerville Ranger District have developed a site and resource rehabilitation plan, which was intended to assist Forest Service and Rainbow Family members to better under-stand the objectives and expected results of the cleanup and rehabilitation process. The Plan outlines rehabilitation objectives that are designed to return the site to near pre-gathering condition. All rehabilitation activities are expected to be completed by August 1, 1998.

The District Ranger of the Springerville District and several resource specialists met with representatives of the Family on July 6 to discuss and present the rehabilitation plan. The meeting went very well, al-though the Family members were disappointed that the Forest Service would not be providing tools and materials needed to complete the rehab. The Family was also notified that if rehabilitation was not completed or was not effective, the Forest Service would complete the project and bill the Rainbow Family for all costs incurred by the Government.

Post-Incident Monitoring

The gathering site covered an area of approximately five square miles. Although the rehabilitation plan identifies many of the site-specific rehabilitation needs, additional design work will be necessary after most of the incident participants have departed and the actual site impacts can be determined. District resource personnel have begun the identification of all site-specific rehab needs and will continue to work with the Family during the rehabilitation process. Upon completion of site cleanup and rehabilitation, the District will prepare a final report documenting specifics on pre and post-incident conditions and all monitoring activities.

In addition, the following post-incident monitoring activities are planned:

Water quality monitoring will continue with the collection of three additional sets of water samples designed to define the longevity of the effects to water quality.

A Properly Functioning Condition Survey will be conducted on Carnero Creek to determine the effects to the riparian area.

Post-incident vegetation transects will be completed to assess the effects to forage in the area.

Photo points will be revisited to obtain visual documentation of the actual impacts to the site.




The Logistics Section was staffed to provide service and support to all incident personnel (including, to some degree, cooperators). The Communications unit was separated from Logistics and made a full staff section. The Medical Unit was administered by the Safety Officer..


Provision of supplemental liquids was addressed through a job hazard analysis which considered length of shift, remote duty location, high altitude, high temperatures, and low humidity.

Close coordination was lacking between the team and the Forest Supervisor prior to the incident regarding ICP facility needs. The result was a delay and may have strained the relationship with the Apache County Sheriff's Office.

Dispatch (detail) information provided to SWICC did not always get transmitted through the dispatch system to the employee being requested.

- Some employees did not report their travel itinerary through dispatch.

Some personnel arrived unprepared to immediately begin work. There was a sense that some personnel believed there were unlimited funds, thus unlimited supplies. Another issue is the resistance by some incident personnel to cost-control measures when they knew rules or regulations "allowed" greater expense than was being incurred.

Incident personnel need to be prepared to accept the accommodations provided to them. It is rarely possible to place everyone in the same establishment so there will be differences in lodging quality and amenities.

Several travelers purchased round-trip airline tickets. This caused very early departures from Springerville for some, and prohibited orderly demobilization by limiting options for the demobilization unit.

Some incident personnel did not understand demobilization procedures, especially "release."



The supply unit actually started operations about 2 months before mobilization. Many of the specialty items for law enforcement were procured, then transported with incident personnel. This enabled the team to start work immediately with the required items on hand.

Personnel were mobilized through routine channels, utilizing the dispatch/coordination center network. Law Enforcement Officers and Special Agents were ordered on detail request forms as technical specialists. This system works well, and should be used for future mobilizations.

Lodging rates were negotiated and paid by the Finance section rather than by individuals. This saved a great deal on total costs. By telling motel proprietors we would have several people for several days, we obtained very favorable rates.


The ICP facility was obtained on a no charge agreement. Cleaning services were negotiated with school staff (who knew best what needed to be done).

An operations tent was established at Aspen Meadows on a no charge agreement.

The Supply Unit provided for cooperators as well and Forest Service personnel.

Fruits and liquids were procured on a daily basis to minimize waste.

Some office supplies were purchased through GSA.

The Silver City cache supplied furniture, ice chests, garbage cans, and other items which were returned for credit after use.




In the organizational structure of the National Incident Management Team, the communications position is a staff position reporting directly to the Incident Commander rather than the Logistics Chief. As a staff member, the Communications Section Chief has a closer working relationship with the rest of the team as team members come directly to the Communications Section Chief for assistance. It also relieved the Logistic Chief from a duty they are rarely qualified to monitor. It is also important to mention that the Communications Section Chief and the Communications Technician are Forest Service employees whose primary field is communications.


The Communications Section provides optimum support to our field officers and staff with the means to complete their assigned tasks. The Communications Section takes the lead in providing complete telephone and radio support plus computer hardware, software and modem support, and facsimile (FAX) lines and equipment. The main function of the Communications Section is to install a radio system which will support the Incident. This includes but is not limited to:

Install repeaters, install the antenna, power the equipment (AC power, solar, battery, etc.), provide backup equipment in case of failure.

Install base stations as necessary, install the antennas, power equipment (AC power, solar, battery, etc.) provide backup equipment in case of failure. Provide recording equipment.

Program mobiles and portables.

Issue portables to other agencies which need to operate on the Incident Radio System.

Provide telephone communications at the ICP.

Radio Systems & Equipment

In preceding years radios and radio frequency clearances have been provided by the National Incident Radio Support Cache (NIRSC) located in Boise; Idaho. Although this cache is well-equipped to provide support for forest fires, hurricanes and other type natural disasters, the low power output of these radios requires installing a relatively large amount of equipment to provide sufficient coverage. The radio frequencies used in this equipment are also widely known and many different agencies/personnel have these frequencies installed into their forest radios. In recent years, the Washington Office began providing additional frequencies for temporary use, providing the NIRSC additional capability but also leading to additional demands on a limited radio system.

Upon request, the Washington Office provided unique radio frequencies that were protected from FOIA. The team provided incident radio repeaters and most of the personal portable radios used during the event. One box of King radios (16 total radios) was requested and received for NIRSC. Since wild-land fires broke out in several states and the demand for radio equipment was extremely high, the pre-planning in providing our incident equipment proved the difference in completing the objectives. Estimated cost for the equipment provided for the incident is $23,000. This includes document scanners, fax machines, telephone equipment, antennas, shredders, recording equipment, cameras, binoculars, laptop computers, and printers.


The Radio system consisted of eleven channels. Most of them were assigned on a "just-in-case" basis. The main command channel was recorded at the Incident Command Post (ICP).All communication between the field units and the ICE was on this channel. There was also a command simplex channel and two tactical channels for car-to-car type communications. These four channels were assigned unique frequencies especially cleared for this incident. These frequencies are FOIA protected and were never published in the daily operation plan. We entered into a cooperative agreement with Apache County to use the Arizona "Joint Operations Frequency" and the Apache County radio network. The Joint Operations channel was never used nor was the channel designated for coordination with the Arizona Highway Patrol. We installed one channel to provide communication with the forest on an emergency basis, one channel for joint fire fighting efforts between the forest and the team and the last channel was an emergency air-to-ground channel. The radio system worked to near perfection. Mobile radios had 100% coverage with personal portable radios providing approximately 95% coverage.

A lot of equipment was transported to the site in a trailer on loan from the Savannah River Helicopter module. This included four repeater systems, six base radios with all the associated supplies necessary to install these systems such as antennas, coax, and connectors. These systems had unique frequencies supplied by the Washington Office and each repeater could be used with three different sets of radio frequencies.

Computer and other telecommunications equipment

Our Incident Command Post was located in one wing of the Round Valley Middle School, Eagar, Arizona. The local telephone company repairman was most helpful in obtaining 10 telephone lines. The incident used four of the School's lines; three voice and one voice/fax line. All telephone lines served at least dual purposes, some were modem/voice lines, some were fax/voice lines. There were not enough telephone lines for optimum communications.

Communications provided fourteen telephones, two fax machines/telephones, three lap top computers and two printers for the team's use. Other team members brought an additional four lap top computers and several more printers. Most team members brought cellular phones and/or pagers and personal hand held radios with them but several additional cellular phones and pagers had to be rented.

The team members brought seven laptop computers. All were used for contact between the team members and their home units, as well as providing a means to write the many reports required in these type of events. The team also brought two fax machines, six small printers and twelve telephones. Two of the phones had headsets so the user could walk around and continue to work while on the telephone.

Dispatch Operations

Dispatch operations started in the Round Valley Middle School on June 18, 1998, with two dispatchers working a day shift. The level of law enforcement activity indicated a need for additional personnel. A person was ordered on June 21 and two more on June 24. To provide optimum performance three day and three night dispatchers are needed.

The dispatch radio system worked extremely well but there were delays with the National Crime Identification Center (NCIC) checks. As teams of officers made stops, the response time in obtaining necessary ID information slowed. The primary route for NCIC checks was through the Apache County Sheriff's Office, and the Arizona Highway Patrol office in Phoenix, Arizona, was also used during peak times. Incident dispatchers need training to become NCIC qualified operators so that during our next operation we can install this system into the dispatch center.


After beginning the incident with two dispatchers, final staffing were two day shift dispatchers and two night shift dispatchers with one additional dispatcher working half days and half nights. This staffing level appears to be correct and will be used in future incidents.

Problems Areas

The initial group of officers came well equipped to handle their mission. A minimum equipment list was provided in advance so that officers and support personnel would know what to bring with them. The radios and associated equipment that the team requested each officer bring were in good condition. By being so well prepared, the communications team had time to ensure the operations net and the logistic net worked correctly. The second group of officers were not so well prepared. They arrived needing everything from adapters to make their equipment work, to broken radios. They did not bring the requested rechargeable batteries and some did not have hand held radios. Communications can not bring enough equipment for this kind of support.



Carnero Lake Chosen as Gathering Site

As early as the beginning of June, members of the Family started to appear on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests. The actual location of the gathering was not chosen beforehand, and a number of scouts were sent out to locate a suitable site. The Forest was contacted regarding possibilities, but no specific gathering site was suggested. Information on locations to avoid for various reasons, such as wolf habitat, was given out. On June 13, 1998, the Carnero Lake area was chosen as the National Gathering Site for the Rainbow Family of Living Light. To allow the reader to get orientated, Photos 1 and 2 show a panorama of the gathering site and Carnero Lake.

Conditions Previous to Gathering

Carnero Lake is located on the Springerville Ranger District approximately 18 miles west of Springerville/Eagar, Arizona, within Apache County (see Appendix 7, Map 1). It occupies portions of Township 8.0 North, Range 27.0 East, Sections 5, 6 and 7. At an average elevation of 9000 feet, the vegetation type is dominated by Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer woodlands, intermixed with high elevation grasslands. Overstory composition of the upland includes Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, white fir, aspen, Engelmann spruce, and blue spruce. Understory consists of blue grama, Arizona rose and gooseberry. Primary riparian composition includes Kentucky bluegrass, hairgrass, iris, gooseberry, sedges, rushes, dock weed, water milfoil, owl clover, crowfoot, wire rush, fleabane, geranium and dandelion (see Appendix 13).

The area has been largely managed under the multiple use concept, providing for recreation, hunting, ranching, timbering, and agricultural irrigation. With an idyllic setting, Carnero Lake has been a camping retreat for both local campers and visitors from urban areas. The size of a given recreationist party has usually been small and camps were widely spread out, with stays averaging under five days. Trash disposal has followed the "pack it in/pack it out" approach, as no trash collection is provided. Several roads and trails can be found adjacent to the lake as a result of camping and fishing activities; while in the surrounding woodlands, roads are primarily related to previous harvest activities. These access roads vary in condition, with some being in passable condition, and others are in need of maintenance. Impacts to the general vicinity have historically been low and short term because of limited visitor density in the area at a given time. Past timber harvesting activities have also left impacts with burn piles still evident in some areas.

Carnero Lake is fed directly from Carnero Creek, the source of which begins 0.5 mile upstream at Carnero Spring. After exiting the lake, the creek continues approximately 20 miles east before emptying into the Little Colorado River. A Proper Functioning Condition (Bureau of Land Management Technical Report 1737-9, 1993) survey was conducted on 6/17/98 to develop a base line assessment of water-shed conditions within the 1998 Rainbow Gathering site (see Appendix 13). Carnero Creek was broken into two reaches. Reach l begins at Carnero Spring and continues to Carnero Lake (0.5 miles), while Reach 2 begins at the lake outlet and continues until reaching a box canyon (0.75 miles). The results of this survey indicated that Reach 1 was Functional--At Risk, with no apparent trend. This rating was given based upon the fact that the deep-rooted sedge component in the riparian area was being replaced by the more shallow-rooted Kentucky bluegrass and that willows in the reach were declining. With low velocity flows from the spring, most banks were in stable condition. Allowing an increase in carry-over "stubble height" from fall to spring would enhance channel and riparian features by reducing flow velocities, and trapping sediment. Reach 2 was rated Functional--At Risk with a downward trend. This rating was based on observations that adequate riparian vegetation and coarse woody debris are either


inadequate or missing from the system, and that channel conditions are impacted by poorly drained roads, wild and domestic ungulate grazing and water diversions.

Natural Resource Effects of the Rainbow Gathering

With an estimated 25,000+ people attending the Gathering, impacts on the Forest were a major concern. These concerns were presented to the Family members early in the gathering, and was discussed continuously during the event with key members of the family. On July 7, 1998, the Springerville Ranger District presented the Family with the "Site and Resource Rehabilitation Plan." (see Appendix 10).

The following section will discuss various specific issues identified in the field by Forest Personnel the Gathering. Following the narrative, a compilation of photos is included for a visual description of event activities and resource concerns.

New Roads and Trails

Many new roads and trails were created through the forest, across meadows and up steep hillsides. Soil compaction was quite severe which limits rehabilitation potential by restricting plant growth. In order to inventory new roads, parking areas and trails needing rehabilitation, a GPS system was used to provide locations of various resource concerns which were plotted on a GIS map. This was then provided to the Family rehab team (see Appendix 1, Map 5), along with instructions on what type of treatments the Forest required (see Appendix 8 and 10). Areas needing attention were marked on the ground with clearly labeled wooden stakes or with plastic flagging hung in conspicuous spots. Often, these markers were deliberately removed by remaining Family members, making it difficult for rehab people to find or relocate problem areas. Recommendations for severely compacted areas included loosening the soil with a harrow before seeding. A hand drawn harrow was used along many trails, but resulted in little or no scarification in the compacted areas. The hand drawn harrow was not heavy enough to break the crust or penetrate the ground sufficiently.. The Family then rented a small tractor with a harrow and operator to break up soil crusts along the trails, which accomplished the seed bed preparation according to Forest standards. Most trails leading up steep hillsides were seeded and waterbarred in an acceptable fashion. The Family was not able to rehabilitate roads located on steep hills with their limited resources. The Forest, consequently, waterbarred and ripped these roads after the August l, 1998, date set for Rainbow rehab completion. Costs for charges incurred to complete rehabilitation of the Rainbow site are included in Appendix 11.

Roads and trails leading through wet meadows which were vegetated with sedges and rushes were recommended to be left alone as long as root crowns were still intact. Examples of such areas were demonstrated to Family members for future identification.

Group Areas, Gathering Sites and Kitchen Areas

Areas that received continual use by large concentrations of people, such as kitchen areas, supply areas and other gathering sites, were all highly compacted. Similar to roads and trails, these areas needed to be thoroughly harrowed, seeded and in some areas covered with slash. This was accomplished with both a hand harrow and the rental tractor. Summer rains accounted for most of the rehabilitation of the gentle slopes and open meadows. Those areas that needed scarification and seeding are expected to


have adequate response either this growing season, or certainly the next growing season. For a map of group areas and their respective acreages, see Appendix 1, Map 5.


Garbage handling was variable across the entire site. Some areas served as collection points and resulted in eight foot high mounds of trash, both loose and in trash bags. Other miscellaneous piles of trash appeared near areas of concentrated camp sites along roads. The larger garbage concentrations were picked through for recyclable materials (plastic jugs, glass, steel and other metals, and cardboard) which were then hauled to recycle centers in the area and some as far away as 90 miles (glass). Loose trash blowing around was present but not abundant. All trash was hauled off by August 1, 1998, by the Family.

Cutting of Fences

Barbed wire fences were cut at random to allow foot traffic access through meadows or vehicle access to camp sites. At times, fence openings were cut 50 feet apart or entirely removed for 40 feet. Larger openings were found in high use areas (Kiddie village). Many of these cuts were not initially repaired to U.S. Forest Service standards and had to be repaired again by the Family to meet proper specifications.

Sanitation Practices Regarding Human Waste

During the initial planning process, human and dog waste was recognized as posing a potential problem during and after the Gathering. Studies completed in various other locations in Arizona have shown the impacts of surface contaminations, as well as from water based recreation involving full body contact. Results showed strong linkage between these impacts and water contamination in both flowing or standing surface waters. Previous reports concerning Rainbow gatherings have not addressed this type of resource impact.

At the onset of the Gathering, it was recommended to utilize self contained portable toilets which could be rented and brought on site. This did not occur, and the Family chose to utilize slit trench latrines to facilitate disposal of human waste. Many of these were constructed, though latrines were lacking in several areas. Most of the slit trenches were covered up, however Forest crews discovered a few latrines that had been left open. These were covered by the Forest dozer crew. Any secluded areas where trench latrines were not in close proximity, resulted in countless piles and toilet paper openly left on the ground. Incidents of numerous defecations in dry ephemeral drainage bottoms were documented. During runoff events, such practices lead to severe bacterial loading of live streams. During the rehabilitation efforts of the Family, none of the open fecal material was buried. The result of this gathering may deter local use of the area for a year or two.

Human waste sanitation is extremely important from the standpoint of surface contamination of runoff water as well as the ground. A gathering of 25,000 people can result in approximately 12 tons of waste per day ( 120 tons over a 10 day peak event period), not including waste from dogs. This is contained to varying degrees in trenches, but remains a real water quality impact. The necessity of adequate facilities and proper procedures cannot be stressed enough.


Water Quality

Several cooperators developed and executed a water quality monitoring program. Sample locations identified relative to the Gathering and their water sources were tested for bacterial composition. Within the gathering area, springs, lakes and streams were sampled for fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. cold by a certified laboratory. Samples of feces of known origin were also collected (human, dog, elk, bear, deer, cattle) to facilitate identification and ascertain proportional contribution of contamination sources through DNA testing. Six sampling dates were established including: 1) an initial sample (6/16/98) with approximately 300 persons on site, 2) a peak event sample (7/7/98), 3) a resample (7/10/98) to correct a lab problem from the 7/7 sample, 4) a sample (7/21/98) two weeks following event peak, 5) a sample (8/10/98) three weeks following sample 4, and 6) a sample (9/10/98 scheduled) four weeks following sample 5. The sampling is being performed by a research group from Northern Arizona University under the direction of Dr. Gordon Southam. This group was contracted by Arizona Department of Environment Quality (ADEQ), under the coordination of Mike Hill, to conduct the analysis. A report detailing the study will be completed by the University and forwarded to the ADEQ, the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and other interested parties. For initial results of bacterial testing to date see Appendix 9. Locations of sampling sites can be found on Map 3 of Appendix 1.

There are two likely sources of water contamination. One is open defecation in drainages or near water bodies, and the other is direct body contact from bathing in streams and lakes. Such practices may result in extremely high bacterial spikes. The area directly adjacent to Carnero Creek in the woodlands below the outlet, had a high density of open defecations near rocks and trees. This area did not have any nearby slit trenches which made it more susceptible to such practices. After the heavy rains that followed the July 4 peak Gathering date, much of this waste was flushed through the watershed. As waters collected from this watershed, as well as Carnero Springs and the lake, are not intended nor used for domestic purposes, the high bacterial spikes encountered are not expected to have any direct impacts. Most of the irrigation water from Carnero Lake is used to irrigate pastures, where water quality is less of an issue. There are no fish in Carnero Lake.

Note: Due to the health hazard, it is advised to disallow large gatherings within any municipal water-shed. Potable water treatment facilities are not designed to treat massive doses of bacteria, and may fail to maintain standards. Adequate facilities for dealing with surface water protection are priority concerns for future planning and administration of large gatherings.

Water Supply to the Camp

Water was supplied to various locations throughout the camp by means of black ABS pipes from Carnero Springs. Although permission to use this water was denied by the holders of water rights, the Family continued its diversion and use. The black ABS pipe which was used is not intended to be used for potable water, and all of the piping materials installed were previously used. This in itself made water quality questionable. The used pipe likely contained remnants of water and a variety of bacterial growths inside the piping, as well as chemical contaminants from the ABS plastic. This can be considered a health hazard.

The quantity of water which was diverted through the ABS piping may not have been a significant proportion of the entire flow of Carnero Springs. The makeshift diversion was installed behind a few rocks creating a small pool, and then gravity fed to various locations. The total amount used had no visible effect on the lake level of Carnero Lake, and similarly, it likely had no significant impact on


volumes of irrigation water available to the water rights holders. There were no significant effects resulting from water releases from the various outlets in the Family's water distribution system.


A variety of structures were erected or put in place which had to be removed and/or rehabilitated. Stream crossings were placed to minimize foot traffic impacts, and consisted of logs crossing the stream channel, or rocks placed into the channel. All of these structures were removed, with most of the debris scattered nearby. The greatest danger of leaving such structures in place is from possible stream bank cutting around the sides during high flows expected during spring runoff.

Other structures of temporary nature were erected in camp sites most of which have been obliterated. Various camp sites had large "teepees" constructed of poles some 10 to 12 feet high and 8 inches or more in diameter; many other sites had smaller shelters approximately 4 feet tall and also constructed of sticks and poles. Fire rings, remaining charcoal and ashes, and rock cairns were common and of which most have been obliterated.

Herb Gardens

Herb gardens were established in saturated riparian areas in order to produce alfalfa sprouts and other greens. These sites were not extensive, and amounted to only a few square feet. It is doubtful whether these areas produced much material, and their long-range impact is negligible. Most of the plants involved are annuals and are readily consumed/removed by wildlife and livestock. The plantings were not removed or obliterated by the Family. Random scattering of marijuana seeds may have occurred, and resulting plants should be monitored for during the remaining growing season, as well as next year. The cold climate of the Carnero Lake area is not optimal or conducive to this plant.

Abandoned Pets

Dogs are common pets among the Family, and abandoned animals can be a problem. Stray dogs have been noted by Family members (among others), who remained on site after the Gathering for various reasons (July 15, 1998). Location of dog pounds were inquired about and upon finding out of the lack of such facilities and what their likely fate will be if left behind, an effort was made by the Family to round up strays. Only one stray dog was observed after August 1, 1998, which was handled by Springerville District after it was brought to the District office..

Health and Safety Violations

1) As previously mentioned, sanitation practices regarding human waste disposal did not meet State standards. Slit trench latrines were built, and a number were left uncovered. Open defecation was common, and left uncovered. No efforts were made to cover open piles during rehab.

2) The water distribution system used by the Family was black ABS plastic, which is not approved for potable water. Whether the system was flushed with bleach to help clean the interior of the assembled system is unknown.


3) Numerous large kitchens were scattered throughout various locations of the camp. These supplied food to large groups of people, including children. Sanitation practices observed regarding food preparation and handling did not meet State or Federal health standards.

4) Water quality of Carnero Spring, Carnero Lake, and Carnero Creek decreased significantly during and after the gathering. Fecal bacteria counts increased substantially, and the source of contamination will be verified by DNA analyses. Water contamination may be related to lacking sanitation practices regarding human and dog waste, as well as nude bathing in lakes and streams.

5) State and County health officials were on site, but issued no violation notices or licenses to our knowledge.

Camp Life during the Gathering

In the following section of photographs, a selection of scenes give a general impression of routine camp life during the gathering. Scenes from group activities, tent camps, kitchens, supply tents, vehicle parking, and related resource impacts are shown to give the reader a total picture of events at the gathering.

Forage Utilization Standards - Measurement Of Grass

Paced Transects Scores and Discussion


Prior to the Rainbow Gathering, six Condition and Trend Paced Transects (Region 3 protocol, FSH 2209.21) were installed and read near Carnero Lake on the Springerville Ranger District. A seventh transect was installed near Iris Spring prior to the gathering but was not repeated as the main gathering did not impact the area. Following the Gathering the transects were read again to determine if the gathering had impacted vegetation or soil stability. The table below summarizes the Range Condition readings prior to, and after the Gathering:

Prior to Gathering (6/12 &14/98) After Gathering (8/2/98)
TransectVegetation Soil StabilityVegetation Soil Stability
P250 - FAIR42 - FAIR 57 - FAIR53 - FAIR
P355 - FAIR40 - POOR 51 - FAIR52 - FAIR
P451 - FAIR61 - GOOD 62 - GOOD65 - GOOD
P553 - FAIR50 - FAIR 51 - FAIR50 - FAIR
P639 - POOR33 - POOR 48 - FAIR47 - FAIR
P738 - POOR51 - FAIR 55 - FAIR57 - FAIR


The increases in Range Condition rating can be attributed to the fact that for almost a month before the transects were first read the area had not received rain, therefore very little growth had occurred on most herbaceous plants in the area. Two weeks after the transects were first read, the summer monsoon sea-son began and for the entire month of July the area experienced rainfall. With the rains, herbaceous


plants grew and therefore some of the bare spaces had plants where none had been on the first reading of the transects. The slightly lower Range Condition scores on P3 and P5 can be explained because the rain in the area increased numbers of undesirable plants growing in the area which lowers condition scores.

The areas where the transects were located were not heavily impacted by the Rainbow Family Gathering. Because the Family has a loosely organized administrative structure and the site was not chosen until just before the gathering, it was difficult to ascertain where to best locate the transects to quantify the direct impacts of the gathering on herbaceous vegetation.

Species Management - Impacts on Threatened & Endangered Species, Including Impacts to the Mexican Gray Wolf

The only documented threatened or endangered species within the area of the Rainbow Gathering is the Mexican Spotted Owl (MSO). The MSO was listed as a threatened species on April 15, 1993. Based on results of survey data, the Forest Service established the Carnero MSO Protected Activity Center (PAC), in 1991. The PAC is located approximately 1/10 of a mile from the Rainbow's camp south east boundary. Because the PAC is located on steep slopes with dense canopy cover, human disturbance related to the Gathering was minimal. Evidence of incidental hiking / backpack type camping was observed within the PAC, but the majority of camping/gathering occurred over 3/4 of a mile from the north west boundary of the PAC.

Annual MSO informal monitoring was initiated by the District several months before the gathering, but failed to document presence of the MSOs within the PAC. Because of growing concerns for the safety of employees conducting night time MSO monitoring in close proximity to the Rainbow camp, no monitoring was conducted during the Rainbow Gathering. When the Gathering concluded, monitoring resumed and a male and female pair of MSOs were located within the established PAC, however reproductive status could not be determined. Yearly monitoring has consistently documented occupancy of the PAC from 1991 to 1998. Analysis of the informal monitoring data collected from the Carnero MSO in the summer of 1998 indicates; 1) the PAC was not abandoned as a result of the Gathering and 2) the effects of the gathering on reproductive status could not be determined.

Mexican Gray Wolves were reintroduced on the Alpine Ranger District in spring of 1998. The closest release pen site is located approximately 22 air miles south from where the Rainbow camp was established. Months before the Rainbow Gathering, a single radio collared wolf was documented approximately 1.5 miles from where the Rainbow Gathering occurred. This wolf was recaptured before the Gathering because of concerns of potential impacts to a residential area were the wolf was favoring. No radio collared wolves were documented in proximity of the Rainbow camp while the Gathering was occurring. There is no evidence to indicate the wolves were affected by the Gathering.

Tree Management - Documentation of the Number of Trees Cut or Removed

The Rainbow Family Gathering site is characterized predominantly by the mixed conifer forest vegetation type with a small amount of spruce-fir. Overstory tree composition includes ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, white fir and blue spruce. Aspen occurs interspersed throughout both forest types. The balance of the setting is comprised of high mountain meadows and cienegas which are generally associated with


the riparian corridor along Carnero Creek and around Carnero Lake. An isolated population of Bebb's willow occupy the wet meadow area southwest of Carnero Lake.

Family members cut a variety of live and dead trees, in both the commercial (fuelwood, poles, pulp-wood, sawtimber) and non-commercial categories. The most obvious use of non-merchantable dead and down wood was to provide fuel for the many cooking and warming fires. Other uses included; building sleeping structures to cover with tarps, outlining of trails with small logs, and building fences by stacking sticks and poles. Family members cut an estimated 200 standing trees (mostly dead) of all species without permit. The majority of trees cut were in the 5" to 9" dbh size class. A lesser amount of predominantly aspen and spruce (both live and dead) in the 9" to 14" dbh size class were cut and limbed for use as heavy support timbers (Photo 21) for large structures (meeting places and kitchens) and stream crossings (Photo 19).

Range Impact - Cattle/Sheep Reductions or Removal

The Carnero Lake site of the 1998 Rainbow Family gathering was within the Greens Peak grazing allotment. Livestock grazing on the allotment is managed with a four pasture deferred rotation grazing system with five permittees. Resource effects as a result of the Gathering were primarily limited to a single pasture. The scheduled livestock turn out date for the allotment was June 15, 1998. The regular June 1 turn out date had been delayed by 15 days due to a dry spring and early summer. Permittees were notified of potential grazing adjustments by phone and personal contact through the weeks of June 9 and 16, 1998. The District also held an evening meeting with the affected permittees on June 18, 1998, to coordinate adjustments to grazing rotations and answer questions regarding the Rainbow event.

To reduce potential conflicts between the Rainbow event and grazing operations, an early pasture move was made to avoid the peak Rainbow event timeframe. Forest Service personnel assisted with the pasture move to coordinate livestock movements. Additionally, one permittee delayed entry onto the allotment, with 195 head of livestock, until after the first pasture move was completed. The affected pasture was scheduled for re-entry later in the 1998 grazing season after rehabilitation and vegetative recovery was accomplished. It is anticipated that normal grazing rotations can be resumed in the 1999 grazing season.

Heritage Resources / Traditional Cultural Properties

Prior to the selection of the Carnero Lake locality as the focus of Rainbow Gatherer activities, a review of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests' Heritage Resources Inventory files was conducted by the Forest Archeologist in accordance with provisions of 36 CFR 800 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as amended (NHPA). This review revealed that two heritage resource inventories related to timber sales had been conducted in the immediate vicinity:

(1) The North Unit Timber Sale inventory (Gregory 1989) consisted of a sample survey employing randomly selected and randomly spaced transects of 6086 acres on the western and southern side of Carnero Lake. Approximately 13.6% (830 acres) were inspected. One small lithic scatter, Site AR-03-01-06-165, was located at the southern edge of a meadow area south of Carnero Lake and west of its outlet stream.

(2) Beehive Heritage Resource Inventory (Nightengale and Peterson 1993) utilized 46 north/south random transects (as described in the North Unit Timber Sale, above), purpose transects along existing roads and 175 acres within "purposive blocks" to inventory 19,229 acres. Approximately 15%, or 2944


acres, were surveyed. Although two archeological sites and numerous isolated occurrences were located during the course of the inventory, none was within the area designated for the Rainbow gathering.

Subsequent to the Rainbow gathering, on 3 August 1998, the Apache Zone Archeologist inspected the Carnero Lake site to ascertain whether or not heritage resources would be affected by (1) reseeding, (2) construction of water breaks and (3) road obliteration and closure. All of these "damage control" activities involved ground disturbance to a greater or lesser extent and, therefore, constituted "undertakings" as described at 36 CFR 800.2(0) of NHPA. This field inspection allowed the Zone Archeologist both judgementally to select areas to assess the results of the early inventories and to inspect areas where restoration was to be implemented.

An attempt to relocate Site AR-03-01-06- 165 in the meadow south of Carnero Lake was unsuccessful. However, the original report states that the site "is unobtrusive... (and that) little additional information could be gained by further documentation or investigation..." (Gregory 1989: 4-5).

In summary, two heritage resources surveys and a post-Rainbow gathering field inspection by the Zone Archeologist have confirmed that there has been no known effect to heritage resources on Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests by the Rainbow Gatherers.

References Cited:

Gregory, David A. 1989 North, Unit, Wolf/Mullen/North Cultural Resource Survey, Springerville Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests, Apache County, Arizona. Report No. 89-01-085.

Nightengale, Christian B. and John Peterson. 1993 Beehive Area Heritage Resource Survey, Springerville Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests, Apache County, Arizona. Report No. 93-01-630.