Photo 57: Many roads in high density camp areas were damaged after the onset of the summer monsoon rains. Some of this damage was present before the Gathering, but no attempts were made to scarify or restore these areas.

Photo 58: This group area had a large fire ring, which was rehabilitated.



Photo 59: On the majority of rutted roads, rehabilitation efforts consisted of placing a few rotten logs into ruts. Such areas needed ripping to sufficiently scarify the soil.

Photo 60: Locations where root crowns of herbaceous vegetation were not damaged were best left undisturbed, rather than scarified. This especially pertained to sedge dominated areas.



Photo 61: Rehabilitation of heavily used trails consisted of randomly tossing sticks into the paths. Logs and sticks alone are ineffective rehabilitation on compacted soils. These areas needed water bars to divert surface flow off of the trails.

Photo 62: Trails on level terrain needed to be scarified and seeded. Logs and sticks alone are inadequate rehabilitation on compacted soil.



Photo 63: One of a few well-installed water bars. As can be seen, the trail itself was not scarified, nor enough water bars installed. Scarification, seeding and additional water bars would have completed effective rehabilitation of this compacted area.

Photo 64: Water bars left in various stages of completion. The majority of heavily impacted trails need to be water barred by equipment and seeded.



Photo 65: Trails, group areas, latrines and fences needing rehabilitation were labeled and mapped using a GPS system. Many of these markers were repeatedly destroyed or removed.



Photo 66: Often, carification amounted to a few lines scratched across the trails. This is an ineffective method.

Photo 67: This trail was adequately water barred.



Photo 68: The Family scattered seeds over hard compacted soils without adequate scarification, resulting in low to no germination success.

Photo 69: Effects of severe compaction are evident in formation of soil crusis. Seeding over these areas without scarification is ineffective. Much of the unprotected seed is ott to birds and rodents.



Photo 70: Initially the Family attepted to use a hand-drawn harrow. It proved to be inadequate and soon broke. After much convincing, a tractor with harrow and operator was locally rented and used for two days. This resulted in adequate scarification.

Photo 71: This road was adequately scarified with a tractor-drawn harrow. Unfortunately, it was seeded before being harrowed by the Family



Photo 72: The tractor-drawn harrow was used to sufficiently scarify this compacted area.

Photo 73: Several passes with the tractor-drawn harrow were needed to scarify barren areas. Spots still having herbaceous vegetation with live root crowns were left undisturbed.



Photo 74: Many roads were left in severely compacted condition, and required ripping. Here, a Forest Service brush cat was used to close and rehabilitate a road.

Photo 75: Another road needing ripping and closing for effective rehabilitation. Note development of rut, resutlting from traffic during wet conditions.


Appendix 1